The reactivity of several phenols towards liquid phase alkylation with cyclohexene in the presence of heterogeneous and homogeneous acid catalyst at 358 K is studied. The comparison between Amberlyst 15 and CH3SO3H, as examples of heterogeneous and homogeneous systems, shows a higher activity of the former with different behavior of selectivity between the two systems, anyway, in both systems O-alkylation and ring alkylations occur. A remarkable difference in the selectivity of the ring alkylation between heterogeneous and homogeneous systems is observed: Amberlyst 15 shows a constant ortho/para ratio close to 2, while in the presence of CH3SO3H ortho/para is variable from 3 to 5, suggesting an involvement of the cyclohexyl phenyl ether rearrangement. This is proved also by a direct relationship between the ortho/para ratio and the concentration of the cyclohexyl phenyl ether when CH3SO3H is used as a catalyst. The formation of cyclohexyl aril ethers is reversible; on the contrary, ring alkylation appears irreversible. The reactivity of the dimethylphenols shows a strong influence of the steric hindrance of the substituent on the electrophilic attack of the cyclohexyl cation, which is poorly influenced by the inductive effect of the methyl group.
|Titolo:||Acid catalyzed alkylation of phenols with cyclohexene: Comparison between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, influence of cyclohexyl phenyl ether equilibrium and of the substituent on reaction rate and selectivity|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Articolo su rivista |