One of the most important causes of paper degradation is biodeterioration, caused especially by fungi and bacteria under certain environmental conditions. This study was designed to check the presence of cellulolytic microorganisms on documents from the 19th century, and to verify any biodeterioration that may have occurred by using a series of predominantly non-invasive analyses in order to preserve their integrity. For the characterization of paper documents various non-destructive micro-analyses were performed in succession, so as to deepen our knowledge of these step by step and thus provide a logical approach for the general study of this type of artifact. The samples were analyzed by using light microscopy, histochemical tests, pH analysis, SEM-EDS observations, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in ATR, and GC-MS. Organic cultures were also made with the samples taken from the surfaces of the documents; in particular, four fungal species, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., and Ulocladium alternarie, have been identified, as well as the presence of bacteria and dust mites. Finally, relations/correlations between the results of chemical and biological analyses are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Chemical and biological characterization of paper: A case study usinga proposed methodological approach

MANENTE, Sabrina;MICHELUZ, ANNA;GANZERLA, Renzo;RAVAGNAN, Giampietro;GAMBARO, Andrea
2012

Abstract

One of the most important causes of paper degradation is biodeterioration, caused especially by fungi and bacteria under certain environmental conditions. This study was designed to check the presence of cellulolytic microorganisms on documents from the 19th century, and to verify any biodeterioration that may have occurred by using a series of predominantly non-invasive analyses in order to preserve their integrity. For the characterization of paper documents various non-destructive micro-analyses were performed in succession, so as to deepen our knowledge of these step by step and thus provide a logical approach for the general study of this type of artifact. The samples were analyzed by using light microscopy, histochemical tests, pH analysis, SEM-EDS observations, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in ATR, and GC-MS. Organic cultures were also made with the samples taken from the surfaces of the documents; in particular, four fungal species, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., and Ulocladium alternarie, have been identified, as well as the presence of bacteria and dust mites. Finally, relations/correlations between the results of chemical and biological analyses are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10278/35027
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