Artemia spp. is an historically popular biological model still requiring an official internationally based standardization. Several endpoints are currently available. Short-term acute endpoints include biomarker (acetylcholinesterase; heat stress proteins; lipid peroxidation; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; thioredoxin reductase; glutathione-peroxidase; glutathione S-transferase; glutathione reductase; aldehyde dehydrogenase; and adenylpyrophosphatase and Fluotox), hatching (dry biomass, morphological disorders and size), behavioral (swimming speed and path length), teratogenicity (growth), and immobilization (meaning mortality after 5-30 s observation). Long-term chronic tests focus on growth, reproduction and survival or mortality after 7-28 d exposure from larval to adulthood stage. We analyzed each test looking at its endpoint, toxicant and experimental design including replicates, exposure time, number of exposed cysts or organisms and their relative life stage, exposure conditions during hatching and testing (salinity, pH, light intensity, aeration dilution media, and food supply), type of testing chambers, and quality assurance and quality control criteria. Similarities and differences between the identified approaches were highlighted. Results evidenced that hatching 24h short-term and 14 d long-term mortality are the most promising Artemia spp. protocols that should go forward with international standardization. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Titolo:||A review of toxicity testing protocols and endpoints with Artemia spp.|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.04.017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Articolo su rivista |