Fragrance materials (FMs) are used in a variety of detergents and cosmetics, including household and personal care products. Despite their widespread use and the growing evidence of their occurrence in surface waters worldwide, very little is known about their toxicity towards marine species, including a key component of the marine food webs such as copepods. Thus, we investigated the toxicity of six of the more long-lasting and stable commercial fragrances, including Amyl Salicylate (AMY), Oranger Crystals (ORA), Hexyl Salicylate (HEX), Ambrofix (AMB), Peonile (PEO), and Benzyl Salicylate (BZS), to assess their ability to impair the larval development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. FMs inhibited the development of A. tonsa significantly at concentrations by far lower than the effect-concentrations reported in the literature for aquatic species. The more toxic FMs were HEX (EC50 = 57 ng L−1), AMY (EC50 = 131 ng L−1) and ORA (EC50 = 766 ng L−1), while the other three compounds exerted toxic effects at concentrations higher than 1000 ng L−1 (LOEC at 1000 ng L−1 for PEO and BZS, and at 10,000 ng L−1 for AMB). Early life-stage mortality was unaffected by FMs at all the tested concentrations. A comparison with water concentrations of FMs reported in the literature confirmed that FMs, especially HEX and AMY, may act as contaminants of potential concern in many aquatic habitats, including urban areas and remote and polar environments.
Vecchiato M. (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Titolo:||Fragrance materials (FMs) affect the larval development of the copepod Acartia tonsa: An emerging issue for marine ecosystems|
|Rivista:||ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112146|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Articolo su rivista |