This study investigates the chemical speciation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected at three sites in the Venice area, eastern Po Valley (Italy). This area is one of the few hot spots left in Europe where levels of PM2.5 frequently breach EU target values and cause a serious risk for public health. Elemental composition, inorganic ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were quantified in 448 PM2.5 samples and the multiple-site PMF receptor model was based on the elemental and inorganic ion data. Six factors associated with potential sources were quantified, namely, secondary sulfate, ammonium nitrate and combustions, fossil fuels, traffic, industrial and glassmaking. Source apportionment results were further processed using a series of chemometric tools for returning additional information about the seasonal and spatial changes of factors extracted by the PMF analysis. In addition, PMF results were also studied in combination with weather conditions and PAH concentrations revealing that sources of secondary nitrate and sulfate are homogeneously distributed throughout the area, while remaining pollutant sources may have a distinct origin. PMF results were cluster analyzed to sort out samples with similar source profiles and then the wind roses of grouped samples were examined to assess the role of wind speed and direction on PM2.5 pollution and chemistry. The tested tools and the results obtained can be used for air quality assessment studies and air pollution reduction strategies.
|Titolo:||Source apportionment of PM2.5 at multiple sites in Venice (Italy): Spatial variability and the role of weather|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Articolo su rivista |
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|Masiol et al 2014 - Source apportionment of PM2.5 at multiple sites in Venice (Italy).pdf||Post-print||Accesso chiuso-personale||Riservato|